Corticosteroid side effects may cause weight gain, water retention, flushing (hot flashes), mood swings or insomnia, and elevated blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Any numbness or mild muscle weakness usually resolves within 8 hours in the affected arm or leg (similar to the facial numbness experienced after dental work). Patients who are being treated for chronic conditions (., heart disease, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis) or those who cannot temporarily discontinue anti-clotting medications should consult their personal physician for a risk assessment.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used increasingly in recent years since introduction of titanium-based implants with reduced artifact compared to formerly used stainless-steel devices. These artifacts could be decreased even more by changing imaging parameters such as reducing echo time, increasing bandwidth and decreasing voxel size. Aligning the implant along the axis of the magnetic field also reduces artifact although it is often not completely achievable due to the multidirectional configuration of most hardware. Spin echo sequences are less vulnerable to magnetic susceptibility artifact and give better quality images compared with gradient echo sequences. MRI is useful in detecting infection (Figure 9) and assessing recurrent tumor. MRI is the modality of choice in assessing intraspinal contents. Myelography (Figure 6) is an alternative when MRI is contraindicated or is nondiagnostic because of artifact.
Michael B Furman, MD, MS Physiatrist, Interventional Spine Care Specialist, Electrodiagnostics, Pain Medicine, Director, Spine and Sports Fellowship, Orthopaedic and Spine Specialists, Sinai Hospital of Baltimore
Michael B Furman, MD, MS is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation , American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine , American Medical Association , International Spine Intervention Society , North American Spine Society , Pennsylvania Medical Society
Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: OSS Health<br/>Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: Spine Intervention Society; North American Spine Society<br/>Received research grant from: Mesoblast/ Cascade.