Hematological effects of steroids

Vegetarian diets do not contain meat, poultry or fish; vegan diets further exclude dairy products and eggs. Vegetarian and vegan diets can vary widely, but the empirical evidence largely relates to the nutritional content and health effects of the average diet of well-educated vegetarians living in Western countries, together with some information on vegetarians in non-Western countries. In general, vegetarian diets provide relatively large amounts of cereals, pulses, nuts, fruits and vegetables. In terms of nutrients, vegetarian diets are usually rich in carbohydrates, n −6 fatty acids, dietary fibre, carotenoids, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E and Mg, and relatively low in protein, saturated fat, long-chain n −3 fatty acids, retinol, vitamin B 12 and Zn; vegans may have particularly low intakes of vitamin B 12 and low intakes of Ca. Cross-sectional studies of vegetarians and vegans have shown that on average they have a relatively low BMI and a low plasma cholesterol concentration; recent studies have also shown higher plasma homocysteine concentrations than in non-vegetarians. Cohort studies of vegetarians have shown a moderate reduction in mortality from IHD but little difference in other major causes of death or all-cause mortality in comparison with health-conscious non-vegetarians from the same population. Studies of cancer have not shown clear differences in cancer rates between vegetarians and non-vegetarians. More data are needed, particularly on the health of vegans and on the possible impacts on health of low intakes of long-chain n −3 fatty acids and vitamin B 12 . Overall, the data suggest that the health of Western vegetarians is good and similar to that of comparable non-vegetarians.

Stroke Patients: A stroke occurs when a clot (or thrombus) forms in a blood vessel in the brain or forms in another part of the body and breaks off, then travels to the brain (an embolus). In both cases the blood supply to part of the brain is blocked and that part of the brain is damaged. Ticlid works by making the blood less likely to clot, although not so much less that it causes you to become likely to bleed, unless you have a bleeding disorder or some injury (such as a bleeding ulcer of the stomach or intestine) that is especially likely to bleed.

The most frequent adverse reactions to Efudex occur locally and are often related to an extension of the pharmacological activity of the drug. These include burning, crusting, allergic contact dermatitis , pruritus , scarring, rash, soreness, and ulceration . Ulcerations, other local reactions, cases of miscarriage and a birth defect ( ventricular septal defect ) have been reported when Efudex was applied to mucous membrane areas. Leukocytosis is the most frequent hematological side effect. Although a causal relationship is remote, other adverse reactions which have been reported infrequently are:

CO 2 is carried in blood in three different ways. (The exact percentages vary depending whether it is arterial or venous blood). Most of it (about 70%) is converted to bicarbonate ions HCO −
3 by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase in the red blood cells by the reaction CO 2 + H 2 O → H 2 CO 3 → H + + HCO −
3 ; about 7% is dissolved in the plasma; and about 23% is bound to hemoglobin as carbamino compounds. [23] [24] Hemoglobin, the main oxygen-carrying molecule in red blood cells, carries both oxygen and carbon dioxide. However, the CO 2 bound to hemoglobin does not bind to the same site as oxygen. Instead, it combines with the N-terminal groups on the four globin chains. However, because of allosteric effects on the hemoglobin molecule, the binding of CO 2 decreases the amount of oxygen that is bound for a given partial pressure of oxygen. The decreased binding to carbon dioxide in the blood due to increased oxygen levels is known as the Haldane effect , and is important in the transport of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. A rise in the partial pressure of CO 2 or a lower pH will cause offloading of oxygen from hemoglobin, which is known as the Bohr effect .

Hematological effects of steroids

hematological effects of steroids

CO 2 is carried in blood in three different ways. (The exact percentages vary depending whether it is arterial or venous blood). Most of it (about 70%) is converted to bicarbonate ions HCO −
3 by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase in the red blood cells by the reaction CO 2 + H 2 O → H 2 CO 3 → H + + HCO −
3 ; about 7% is dissolved in the plasma; and about 23% is bound to hemoglobin as carbamino compounds. [23] [24] Hemoglobin, the main oxygen-carrying molecule in red blood cells, carries both oxygen and carbon dioxide. However, the CO 2 bound to hemoglobin does not bind to the same site as oxygen. Instead, it combines with the N-terminal groups on the four globin chains. However, because of allosteric effects on the hemoglobin molecule, the binding of CO 2 decreases the amount of oxygen that is bound for a given partial pressure of oxygen. The decreased binding to carbon dioxide in the blood due to increased oxygen levels is known as the Haldane effect , and is important in the transport of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. A rise in the partial pressure of CO 2 or a lower pH will cause offloading of oxygen from hemoglobin, which is known as the Bohr effect .

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